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How To Prepare Soil For A Garden

Posted: Thursday January 14, 2021

The foundation for a plentiful garden is quality soil. When you have rich, healthy earth, you can cultivate bigger, stronger plants more naturally, with fewer fertilizers or pesticides involved. This is why learning how to prepare soil for a garden is worthwhile. By focusing on soil health, you can give your garden a beneficial jumpstart for producing vibrant vegetables and flowers each year. Plus, you can save yourself the headaches and hassles of extra work during the growing season.

Learning How to Prepare Soil Matters 

Plants receive the bulk of their nourishment from soil. Simply put, the healthier the dirt, the more support it provides. In order to give seeds the best environment in which to grow, your soil should be full of the elements that plants need to thrive, such as organic matter, nutrients, water and air. When prepared properly, soil should continue to improve and fuel plants each year; when neglected, it tends to become useful only to weeds.

A Checklist for How to Prepare Soil for Planting

When thinking about how to get soil ready for planting, you want to take action in the spring or fall seasons. It is at these times of year that soil is most stable and amenable to any necessary fertilizers or changes.

Here is a checklist of garden soil tips to help you examine and prepare your dirt each year:

  1. Conduct soil testing: To see the best results from soil preparation, pay attention to the type of dirt you have: How alkaline or acidic is it? What minerals does it contain, and which does it lack? Run a soil test. This should provide valuable insight into the pH, as well as levels of magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and possibly nitrogen. Typically, you want a pH level between 6.5 and 6.8. Anything below 6.0 is acidic, and anything above 7.0 is alkaline. In such environments, most plants may have a hard time absorbing the nutrients they need. Likewise, examine the soil’s texture. If it’s sandy, it is likely low in nutrients. If it’s heavy and clay-like, it may not allow roots to spread. Dense, silty soils are the most fertile.
  2. Till the ground: To loosen the soil and prepare it for seeds, till it as deeply as you can, shooting for at least eight to 10 inches deep. Tackle this project on a day when the soil is moist but not wet; if it is too wet from a recent rain, tilling can actually roughen it.
  3. Add any amendments: If your soil testing revealed acidic or alkaline soil, you can correct the pH with amendments. Increase the pH with lime or lower it with sulfur. Nutrient deficiencies should improve with amendments as well: Bone meal or soft-rock phosphate help boost phosphorous, and blood meal or alfalfa meal can increase nitrogen.
  4. Add organic matter: Most soils improve with the addition of organic matter, such as leaves, straw, grass clippings, manure or sawdust. Compost in particular offers abundant nutrients, improves soil structure and helps retain water. While it is possible to overdo the organic matter, you can’t add too much compost. Start by introducing an inch of compost to your garden beds. Be sure to turn all plant material under the soil.
  5. Rake the soil: Before planting, rake and level the ground. Take away any sticks, rocks or other debris in the garden space.
  6. Prepare rows: In most gardens, creating raised rows can offer a number of benefits. For instance, rows can improve drainage, allow more air to enter the soil, protect plants during periods of high rainfall and provide furrows for irrigation. Having the right tools, such as a garden auger, can make digging holes and prepping rows even simpler. You should aim to create beds that are eight to 10 inches higher than the surrounding soil. If space allows, arrange these rows at least 36 inches apart. Let them settle before planting.

In terms of how to prepare dirt for your garden each year, the above tips provide the key steps. When it’s time to plant, place seeds on top of the prepared rows. Add mulch to moderate the soil temperature, prevent soil compaction and minimize weed growth. You may also want to fertilize regularly to boost nutrition and increase your garden’s yield. Then, each year, re-evaluate your soil to ensure it is in top condition for growing happy, healthy plants.

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